Titanium is an alloy steel with elements (ilmenite), titanium steel grain size will be reduced, at the same time as the titanium deoxidizer of steel will reduce the oxygen content; in stainless steel and Titanium will reduce the carbon content [4] . Titanium is often alloyed with other metals, these metals with aluminum (modified grain size), vanadium, copper (hardening), magnesium and molybdenum and the like [50]. Titanium mechanical products (sheets, plates, tubes, wire, forgings, castings) in the industrial, aerospace, leisure and emerging markets are applied. Titanium powder used in the manufacture of fireworks offers bright burning particles.
Pigments, additives and coatings [edit]
Titanium dioxide is the most common titanium compound
From the Earth's surface mined titanium ore, about 95% were sent refined into titanium dioxide (TiO2), an ultra-durable white pigment used to make paints, paper, toothpaste and plastic [51]. Titanium dioxide is also used in cement, precious stones, paper use sunscreen [52] and graphite composite fishing rods, golf clubs enhancer.
TiO2 powder with the chemically inert, does not fade in the sun, but is also very light transmittance: that these properties so that it is able to manufacture household plastic brown or gray chemicals to bring showy pure white [6]. In nature, this compound can be found in the titanium dioxide anatase, brookite and rutile these types of minerals [4]. Paint made with titanium dioxide can be high temperature, mild to prevent the accumulation of dust and dirt, and withstand the impact of the marine environment [6]. Pure titanium dioxide is very high refractive index, and the ability of optical dispersion higher than diamond [5]. In addition to being a very important addition to the pigment, titanium dioxide sunscreen should be used, because it alone can protect the skin [12].
Recently, it is used in the air cleaner (filter coating), and attached to the building window film, this film when exposed to ultraviolet light (sun or artificial) or moisture in the air, will produce belt height active redox species, such as hydroxyl, can purify the air or keep the window clean surface [53].
Aerospace and Maritime
Due to its high tensile strength - density ratio [9], excellent corrosion resistance [5], anti-fatigue, anti-crack resistance [54] and can withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping, the titanium alloy is used in aircraft, armor cladding panels, naval ships, spacecraft and missiles [5] [6]. In these applications, titanium alloys with aluminum, vanadium, and other elements, used in the manufacture of various components, including the key architectural components, firewalls, landing gear, an exhaust pipe (helicopter) and hydraulic system. In fact, about two-thirds of the production of titanium metal is used in the manufacture of spacecraft engine and framework [55]. SR-71 "Blackbird" is the first extensive use of titanium in the structure of the body, the body of modern military and commercial applications of titanium paved the way. It is estimated that the production of the Boeing 777 to use 59 tons of titanium, 747 to 44 tons, 18 tons to 737 Airbus A340 to 32 tons, 18 tons to the Airbus A330, Airbus A320 to 12 tons. Airbus A380 may take 146 tons, of which engine to 26 tons [56]. On engine applications, titanium is used for rotors, compressor blades, hydraulic system components and nacelles. In aerospace applications in titanium, titanium 6AL-4V accounted for almost 50% [57].
Since the sea is not easy to corrosion, titanium is used to make propeller shafts, rigging and heat exchangers for desalination plants [5]; also used in saltwater aquariums cold food, fishing and diving knife. Titanium is used for housing and other components manufacturing maritime surveillance deployments, and as well as for scientific purposes or military monitoring instrument. The former Soviet Union developed mainly made of titanium submarine technology [58].
Industry [Edit]
Chemical and petrochemical fields need to use welded titanium pipes and processing equipment (heat exchangers, tanks, processing vessels, valves), mainly due to the corrosion resistance of titanium. Wells nickel hydrometallurgy applications to use several specific alloys such as titanium βC, because of high strength and high corrosion resistance, or both. Paper will be prepared to face some aggressive media production equipment will be used titanium, these corrosive media including wet chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite (bleaching) [59]. Other applications include: ultrasonic welding, wave soldering tin melting [60] and sputtering target [61].
Titanium tetrachloride (of TiCl4) is a colorless liquid, in the production of titanium dioxide in the process is an important intermediate, useful for the production of a Ziegler - Natta catalysts and iridium coated glass manufacture, but also because it is in the wet gas will produce smoke, so it can be manufactured with titanium tetrachloride smoke [12].
Titanium Product main categories:
1. commercially pure titanium industry has good weldability. Purity, can be divided into TA1, TA2, TA3 and other brands. Wherein TA1 impurities least, it is the lowest strength, plasticity best.
2. Titanium Titanium has a high strength plastic low, medium and high strength of the strong points. But in general it can be seen as a high-strength titanium alloy. To their high strength aluminum alloy, it has been completely replace certain types of steel intensity. Titanium products are many, such as titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium rods, titanium and so on. Titanium wire can be used for Ti flexible anode wire, it can successfully solve some of the traditional methods can not achieve cathodic protection problems. Titanium tube condensers and heat exchangers can be used to power the device.
Consumer goods and building materials [edit]
Titanium is used for vehicles, especially cars (car or motorcycle), the weight reduction in this area, but at the same time without losing the strength and stiffness is extremely important [62]. In general, titanium consumer market to the general public too expensive, difficult to have sales, so its main market is the high-end products, especially racing / high performance market. Newest Corvette sports car optional titanium exhaust system [63].
Spain Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Titanium facade panels
Titanium is used for a variety of sports: tennis rackets, golf clubs, club bags stick handle; and a skeleton and a member of the bicycle; cradle cricket, hockey, lacrosse and American football helmet. Although titanium bicycle production is not mainstream material, but there are still athletes and adventure enthusiasts titanium bicycle bike [64]. Titanium has also been used to make eyeglass frame [65], although this frame will be a little expensive, but it is light weight and very durable, and will not cause skin sensitization. Many backpackers have a field made of titanium equipment, including cooking utensils, dishes, lanterns and tent stakes [65]. Although slightly more expensive than traditional steel or aluminum kind, these titanium products is much lighter but the intensity diminished. Farrier also prefer to use titanium because titanium horseshoe lighter than steel and more durable [65].
For field backpackers titanium spork. It weighs about 16 grams, lighter than steel cutlery, but stronger than the colored plastic.
Because of its durability, titanium designer jewelry (especially titanium ring) generally begin up [65]. Inert titanium became the reason to choose it, especially for sensitive skin or in the particular environment (such as a swimming pool) who wear jewelry. Titanium durability, light weight, corrosion resistance and anti-depression, making it the ideal material for the production of watch case with [65]. Some artists with titanium to produce artworks such as sculptures, ornaments and furniture [66].
Titanium is occasionally used in applications related to the building: Located 40 meters high in Moscow Gagarin memorial column in honor of the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin • built, titanium is completed [67], the choice of the reason is because it attracts titanium color and connected with rocket technology. Spain Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the United States Cerritos Millennium Library were the first in Europe and North America, the use of titanium panels covering the building [55]. Other titanium panels covering the building as well as in the United States, Colorado, Denver Art Museum's Hamilton Building [68], and in Moscow 107 m high monument of the conquest of space [69].
Compared with conventional guns on metal (steel, stainless steel and aluminum), low-intensity titanium is more superior quality, coupled with the development on the metal, with titanium to make firearms became widespread. The main purpose bracket includes a pistol and a revolver wheel. For the same reason, the main body of the laptop will be used titanium (such as Apple's PowerBook series) [70].
Some high-priced market to sell tools, both lightweight and corrosion-resistant, such as shovels and flashlights, will use titanium alloy.
Medical [Edit]
Small titanium plates and screws are used for fixed Orbital fractures broken bones.
Because of its biocompatible (non-toxic and non-exclusion of the human body), titanium in medicine have a wide range of applications, including surgical appliances and implants, such as hip replacement box and ball joints, can be used up to 20 years [32 ]. Titanium for this purpose generally 4% aluminum [71] or 6% plus 4% vanadium aluminum alloy made.
Titanium has a built-bone fusion, which makes the titanium dental implants can stay in place for 30 years. This characteristic of orthopedic implants is also very useful for the purposes [32]. Titanium, the benefit of using titanium lower elastic modulus (Young's modulus), and is closer to the bone, the implant is made for the purpose of bone repair. Therefore, bone weight is more evenly distributed between the bone and the implant, which will reduce the chance of bone loss, because if there will be uneven load stress occluded bone (bone and reduce stress caused by the implant caused quality loss), as well as surgical implants and prostheses week between bone fractures. However, rigid titanium is still twice the bone, so the bone surrounding the implant force still will be substantially reduced, and may therefore degradation [72].
Since the non-ferromagnetic titanium, titanium implants have acceptable patient safely MRI examination (for those which have a long-term implant is very convenient). Implanted titanium body ready to go through the high temperature plasma arc heating, remove the surface atoms, then the newly exposed surface is oxidized [32].
Titanium is made image guided surgical surgical instruments, as well as wheelchairs, crutches and other needs of small shaped high-strength low-weight products.
Harm [edit]
Titanium content nettle up to eighty millionths.
Titanium is not toxic, even at high doses, too, will not be any natural titanium effect [31] occur in humans. It is estimated that a day would absorb about 0.8 mg of titanium, but most of them without being absorbed by [31]. However, the tissue containing silica appears titanium bioaccumulation tendencies. In plants, an unknown mechanism may use titanium to stimulate the production of carbohydrates and promote growth. This may explain why the majority of plants containing titanium about ppm 1 (ppm), while the amount of titanium-containing food plants is about 2ppm, horsetails and nettle more up to 80ppm [31].
Powdered titanium and titanium sheet planing down easily cause a fire and explosion due to heating in air [73]. Water and carbon dioxide extinguishing class method of burning titanium invalid; must be changed to use a class D dry powder fire extinguishing agent [6].
When the production or handling of chlorine, care must be taken note of titanium can only be used in dry areas without chlorine, as this may cause a titanium / chlorine fire [74]. Even wet chlorine gas is a fire hazard because of abnormal weather conditions in wet chlorine gas may unexpectedly dry.
The new liquid oxygen and titanium surface unoxidized after exposure may fire [75]. This surface may be formed after the titanium oxide surface with a hard object by the collision, or formed in the rift caused by mechanical strain. So it may have restricted the use of titanium in the liquid oxygen systems, such as the aerospace industry will have such a system.
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